The Boy Scout program is based on advancement through seven ranks. Each scout progresses at his/her own rate. Some requirements are completed at Troop meetings, some at campouts, and some must be done independently. All advancements are earned individually.
In the Boy Scouts of America, a new Scout first earns the SCOUT badge, which is a sort of starter badge, after a Scout passes some basic requirements, like knowing the Scout Law and Oath, and the meaning of each (basically what they learned to earn the Webelos Arrow of Light Award).
The first basic rank, on what we call the Trail to eagle, is TENDERFOOT, in which the Scout learns a variety of things like basic first aid, safe hiking, and the basics of camping, and takes part in troop activities.
SECOND & FIRST CLASS
The next ranks are SECOND CLASS and FIRST CLASS, where they learn camping and cooking skills in more detail, more first aid, more knots and lashings, and other skills that will be useful throughout scouting.
STAR, LIFE, & EAGLE
The next three ranks are STAR, LIFE, and EAGLE. For these ranks, Scouts earn a certain number of merit badges for each rank, hold troop leadership offices, and perform a certain number of service hours.
Additionally, scouts going for STAR rank must complete a review of skills learned during the earlier ranks. The Troop considers this review to fall under showing Scout Spirit.
Some of the merit badges for Eagle are specifically required, while other merit badges can be selected by the Scout based on their interests. For Eagle candidates, besides earning merit badges, an Eagle service project must be performed for a charity, church, school, or community.